Laryngeal cancer

The larynx is an organ located below the throat and is located where the vocal cords, structures responsible for speech.

Cancer of the larynx can be located above the vocal cords (supraglottic), located in the portion where the vocal cords (glottis) or below, at the beginning of the trachea (infraglottic). He belongs to the group of tumors that are given the name of the Head and Neck Cancers.

This cancer is most often epidermoid or squamous type, ie, are the cells that line the larynx that undergo changes and become malignant.
What Causes Cancer of the larynx?

The main risk factors for this type of cancer are smoking (any type) and excessive use of alcoholic beverages.

The main symptom is hoarseness of the tumor. In people who already have the voice more hoarse, worsening of symptoms or change in voice may indicate a change in the vocal cords, this change could be related to this cancer. May be accompanied by ear pain, persistent cough, difficulty or pain upon swallowing and lymph (lymph nodes or lumps) increased in the lateral region of the neck (when it is considered locally advanced).

How is it diagnosed THIS CANCER?
When a person feels one of the above symptoms, especially if you smoke and use alcohol regularly, you should see a doctor you trust. This doctor will examine your throat (inside) and your neck.

If the doctor finds it necessary, he will do a laryngoscopy - a test in which you place a mirror or an endoscope apparatus itself to the throat to see a change to explain what the patient is feeling. If any change is found, a biopsy (removing a small piece of the lining of the larynx or injury) will be held in order to make a more detailed examination in a pathology laboratory (pathological examination).

If the cancer diagnosis is confirmed, the doctor will refer the patient to where they treat patients with cancer and more tests will be conducted to assess the extent of disease (staging tests). These tests may include CT scans and blood tests.

As this is?
The treatment depends on several factors, such as the extent of disease (spread to lymph nodes or other organs of the neck), tumor localization, the aggressiveness of malignant cells, age and health of the patient.
Treatment is always the goal to avoid surgeries that remove the entire larynx, because it makes the patient unable to speak normally. The treatments most commonly used are partial surgery, radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy (simultaneously) or in sequence. The tumor is examined after treatment to confirm that disappeared. In this case, it is not necessary to do the surgery to remove the organ and the patient continues to speak naturally. If the tumor does not disappear, or return, you can still have surgery to remove the tumor and in this case, in most cases, the larynx and vocal cords are removed and the patient can not speak for more natural way. Devices are developed for the patient to communicate and it is important to maintain quality of life of patients and their social life.

Continue smoking and drinking alcohol beverages during and after treatment lessens the chance of cure and also increase the chance of the cancer return or to have another cancer in the head and neck or other body part.

If the cancer is very early and has not spread to lymph in the neck and no other place in the body the chance of cure after treatment may be up to 95%. For most patients, in whom the cancer comes back, this is the first 2 to 3 years after treatment, and rarely the tumor comes back after 5 years.
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